On May 25, 1961, President John F. Kennedy delivered a speech before a joint session of Congress in which he proposed that the United States should set itself the goal of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to Earth before the end of the decade. This speech marked the beginning of a new era in American history, which became known as the New Frontier. This article discusses Chapter 28, Section 2 of the New Frontier, which focuses on the policies adopted by the Kennedy administration to address the challenges facing the nation.

The Space Program

One of the key policies of the New Frontier was the space program. Kennedy called for a major expansion of the space program, with the goal of overtaking the Soviet Union in the race for space exploration. He announced plans to launch a manned mission to the moon by the end of the decade and to develop new technologies that would enable human beings to explore the universe. The space program became a symbol of American technological prowess and scientific advancement.

Defeating Communism

Another major objective of the New Frontier was to defeat communism. Kennedy was committed to containing the spread of communism and to promoting democracy around the world. He believed that the best way to achieve this goal was through diplomacy, trade, and military aid. The Kennedy administration supported anti-communist forces in countries such as Vietnam and Cuba, and provided military assistance to allies such as Pakistan and Turkey.

Civil Rights

The New Frontier also addressed issues of civil rights. Kennedy believed that all Americans, regardless of their race, should have equal access to education, employment, and political representation. He supported the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which prohibited racial discrimination in voting, and the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which banned discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.


The New Frontier placed a strong emphasis on education. Kennedy believed that education was the key to improving the lives of all Americans and to maintaining America's competitive edge in the world. He proposed significant increases in federal funding for education and the creation of new programs such as Head Start, which aimed to provide early childhood education to disadvantaged children.

Economic Growth

The New Frontier also sought to promote economic growth. Kennedy proposed tax cuts for both individuals and businesses, in the hope of stimulating investment and job creation. He also called for the creation of a national network of highways to facilitate transportation and trade.


The New Frontier addressed issues related to healthcare as well. Kennedy established the Medicare program, which provided health insurance to Americans over the age of 65, and Medicaid, which provided health insurance to low-income families. These programs addressed the growing healthcare needs of an aging population and the problem of uninsured Americans.

Environmental Protection

The New Frontier also addressed the issue of environmental protection. Kennedy recognized the importance of protecting the natural world and called for the creation of national parks and other protected areas. He also proposed laws to limit pollution and regulate industrial activity, in order to safeguard the health and wellbeing of citizens.

Foreign Policy

The New Frontier had a significant impact on American foreign policy. Kennedy's vision of a more peaceful world rested on the twin pillars of alliances and disarmament. He established the Alliance for Progress, which aimed to promote economic development and democracy in Latin America, and the Peace Corps, which sent American volunteers to work in developing countries. Additionally, the New Frontier sought to reduce the threat of nuclear war through arms control and disarmament agreements.


The New Frontier had a lasting impact on American society and the global community. Kennedy's initiatives in areas such as civil rights, education, healthcare, and environmental protection transformed the way Americans thought about these issues. Additionally, the space program and America's global leadership in the race to the moon cemented America's position as a technological powerhouse. The New Frontier also inspired future generations of Americans to pursue a vision of a more peaceful, prosperous, and just world.


The New Frontier was a defining moment in American history, marked by boldness, vision, and idealism. The policies of the Kennedy administration addressed a range of issues, from space exploration to civil rights to environmental protection. The New Frontier also had a profound impact on American foreign policy, promoting diplomacy, cooperation, and alliances. The legacy of the New Frontier continues to shape American society and politics, inspiring future generations to confront the challenges of the present and pursue a vision of a better future.